Optimization of culture conditions is important to improve oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. In particular, this study analyzed the effects of increasing concentrations of PIO in the maturation medium on spindle formation and chromosome alignment, glutathione, and intracellular ROS levels and expression of selected genes related to maternal markers, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. The percentage of oocytes displaying normal spindle formation and chromosome alignment was higher in the 1 μM PIO (1 PIO)-treated group than in the control group. The glutathione level was significantly higher in the 1 PIO-treated group than in the control group, while the reactive oxygen species level did not differ. Expression of maternal marker ( MOS and GDF9 ), antiapoptotic ( BIRC5 ), and lipid metabolism-related ( ACADS , CPT2 , SREBF1 , and PPARG ) genes was higher in the 1 PIO-treated group than in the control group, while expression of a proapoptotic gene ( CASP3 ) was lower. The blastocyst formation rate and the percentage of blastocysts that reached at least the hatching stage on Days 6 and 7, and the percentage of blastocysts containing more than 128 cells were significantly higher in the 1 PIO-treated group than in the control group. These results indicate that PIO treatment during in vitro maturation improves porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent parthenogenetic embryo development mainly by enhancing lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense in oocytes.